- What Are The 3 Main Natural Causes Of Climate Change
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What Are The 3 Main Natural Causes Of Climate Change – … Home » Discover Geology » Discover Geology: Climate Change » What causes the Earth’s climate to change?
The geological record shows that there have been significant changes in the Earth’s climate. These are caused by many natural factors, including changes in the sun, volcanic emissions, changes in the Earth’s orbit and levels of carbon dioxide (CO.
What Are The 3 Main Natural Causes Of Climate Change
Changes in global climate typically occur very slowly, over thousands or more years. Millions of years. However, research shows that the current climate is changing faster than is shown in the geological record.
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During the last ice age, the British Isles had many glaciers like this one, located in present-day Iceland. © UKRI.
Almost all of the energy that affects the Earth’s climate comes from the Sun. The sun’s energy travels through space to reach the Earth’s atmosphere. Only some of the solar energy intercepted at the top of the atmosphere passes to the surface of the earth. ; Some of it is reflected back into space and some is absorbed by the atmosphere.
The output of solar energy is not constant: it varies over time and it affects our climate.
The three changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun – eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession – are collectively known as ‘Milankovitch cycles’.
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According to Milankovitch’s theory, these three cycles together affect the amount of solar heat reaching the Earth’s surface and subsequently influence climate patterns, including periods of glaciation (ice ages). The time between these changes can be tens of thousands of years (precession and axial tilt) or more than hundreds of thousands of years (eccentricity).
The Earth’s orbit around the Sun is elliptical (oval), but it is not always elliptical. Sometimes, it is nearly circular and Earth is about the same distance from the Sun throughout its orbit. At other times, the ellipse is clearer, so Earth moves closer and further away from the Sun in its orbit.
As the Earth gets closer to the Sun, our climate gets warmer and this cycle also affects the length of the seasons. The measurement of the deviation of a shape from being circular, in this case the Earth’s orbit, is called ‘eccentricity’.
Orbital orbit (left) and elliptical orbit (right). As the Earth is closer to the Sun, its climate becomes warmer. © UKRI.
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The tilt in the Earth’s axis is called its ’tilt’. This angle changes over time, and over 41 000 years it moves from 22.1° to 24.5° and back again. When the angle increases, the summer becomes warm and the winter becomes cold.
The earth wobbles on its axis, like a slow spinning top. This is called ‘precession’ and is caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun on Earth. This means that the North Pole changes where it points to the sky. Currently, the axis of the Earth is the point Polaris, the North Star, but over thousands of years, the axis moves around the circle and different points of the sky. It affects the seasonal difference between the hemispheres and the duration of the season.
) and steam. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, but it stays in the atmosphere for a shorter time: just a few days. h
And water. CO2 stays in the atmosphere longer, from years to centuries, contributing to longer warming. These gases trap solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere, warming the climate.
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Ocean currents carry heat around the world. As the oceans absorb more heat from the atmosphere, sea surface temperatures rise and ocean circulation patterns that send warm and cold water around the world change. The direction of these currents can be reversed so that areas become warmer or cooler. As the oceans store large amounts of heat, even small changes in ocean currents can have a large effect on global climate. In particular, the increase in sea temperature can increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. carbon in the oceans, increasing the amount of greenhouse gases. If the oceans are warming, they cannot absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The world’s oceans absorb about a quarter of the CO 2 we release into the atmosphere each year. As atmospheric CO 2 levels increase, ocean CO 2 levels will increase.
Over a long period of time, plate tectonic processes have caused the continents to move to different positions. About the world. For example, England was near the equator during the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, and the climate was warmer than it is now. The movement of the plates also causes volcanoes and mountains to form and these can also Contribute to climate change. Large mountain ranges can affect global air circulation, and consequently climate. For example, warm air may be diverted to cooler areas by mountains.
Volcanoes affect the climate through gases and particles (tephra/ash) thrown into the atmosphere during eruptions. The effects of volcanic gases and dust may warm or cool the Earth’s surface, depending on how sunlight interacts with the volcanic material. During major volcanic eruptions, large amounts of volcanic gas, Aerosol droplets and ash are released.
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The ash falls quickly, over a period of days and weeks, and has little long-term effect on climate change. However, volcanic gases expelled into the stratosphere remain there for much longer. Volcanic gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO
Into the atmosphere is very small; equal to about one percent of human emissions (caused by humans).
And this can prevent some of the effects of global warming. On the other hand, deserts increase global warming through CO emissions
A decrease in vegetation cover, through deforestation for example, often increases the local albedo, leading to surface cooling. Albedo refers to how much a surface reflects light instead of absorbing it. In general, dark surfaces have low albedo and light surfaces have high albedo. Snowy ice has a high albedo and reflects about 90 percent of incoming solar radiation. Land covered with dark vegetation tends to have a low albedo and will absorb most of the radiation.
Natural Causes Of Climate Change
Currently, most of what is on Earth remains on Earth; Very little material is added by meteorites and cosmic dust. However, meteorite impacts have contributed to climate change in the geological past; A good example is the Chicxulub crater, Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
Large impacts like Chicxulub can cause a variety of effects including dust and aerosols that are ejected into the atmosphere that prevent sunlight from reaching Earth. These devices insulate the world from solar radiation and make the world temperature decrease; The effects can last for a few years. After the dust and aerosols return to Earth, the greenhouse gases (CO2, water and CH4) caused by the interaction of the impact and its ‘target rock’ remain in the atmosphere and can increase the global temperature; These effects can last for decades.
Each of these factors has contributed to global climate change, but how The relationship between each other makes it very complicated. Changing any of these can lead to additions and increases or decreases in conversion. Change in another.
As the atmosphere increases, the temperature of the earth increases. This will contribute to the warming of the oceans. Warmer oceans are able to absorb less CO
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This process is called ‘feedback’. Positive feedback accelerates the temperature rise, while negative feedback slows it down.
What is the difference between weather and climate? What causes the world’s climate to change and what are its effects? Find out more with our Climate Change Discovery Geology resource.
Rising temperatures can affect agriculture, sea levels and the frequency of extreme weather events. We can study past climate change by looking at evidence in rocks, fossils and landscape changes.
The carbon cycle describes the process by which carbon atoms continue to travel from the atmosphere down to Earth, then are released into the atmosphere.
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The gas in the Earth’s atmosphere acts as an insulating blanket around the star, trapping much of the sun’s heat.
Carbon capture and storage involves capturing carbon dioxide at the source of emissions, such as power stations, then transporting and storing it underground.
There is a commitment to research aimed at mitigating the effects of climate change, while helping society become more resilient to climate change. A Comparison of Descriptive and Statistical Models for Estimating Water Quality Compliance in the San Joaquin River Basin, California
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