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The Impact Of Boston Laws On Credit Claim Disputes

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The Impact of Corporate Governance on Banking Performance under the GFC and COVID-19: A Cross-Country Panel Analysis

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By Oumniya Amrani Oumniya Amrani Scilit Google Scholar * and Amal Najab Amal Najab Scilit Google Scholar

Research Laboratory on Economic Competitiveness and Administrative Performance, Interdisciplinary Research Center for Competitiveness and Competitiveness, Faculty of Law, Economics, and Social Sciences Souissi, Mohamed V University, Rabat 6430, Morocco .

Received: 20 October 2022 / Updated: 11 December 2022 / Accepted: 15 December 2022 / Published: 27 December 2022

This paper examines the impact of multi-corporate governance (MCG) on banking performance under the global financial crisis (GFC) and COVID-19. Using a random and fixed effects model, we regressed the effect of MCG variables on the return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), and non-performing loans (NPL) data. panel of 44 conventional banks (CBs) and 40 Islamic banks (IBs), across 17 countries, and in the period from 2006 to 2020. The results show that the board of directors (BoD)’ structure has no relationship and performance of CBs while the chief executive officer (CEO) duality is very strong. affecting the performance of CBs, particularly during the GFC. Furthermore, care planning proxies have a strong positive influence on the performance of CBs, especially in the post-GFC period. Furthermore, the diversity and size of the Shariah board (SB) have a significant negative impact on the performance of IBs, but the SB education has a non-significant positive impact overall. – excluding NPLs, which had a positive impact during the GFC. The level of care has a positive effect on the performance of IBs except in times of crisis.

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In the space of nearly a decade, two major crises have affected the global economy: the 2008-2009 global financial crisis (GFC) and the ongoing COVID-19 first as a global epidemic. Despite the similarity in the economic and financial consequences of the two crises in the world economy, they are different in terms of the basic nature of the causes. In general, risk can be exogenous or endogenous to the economic system. The first reflects factors that arise outside the economy, while the others come from within the system (Bouchaud 2016). The GFC is a clear example of the chronic risk that arose from the actions of market participants, bankers and entrepreneurs. These actions led to excessive risk-taking and debt accumulation that resulted in “the largest debt in history” in the words of Nobel laureate Paul Krugman (2009). On the other hand, the current global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by unusual factors that directly affect the real economy. However, the financial sector in general and banks in particular are expected to play a role in defusing the crisis caused by the pandemic (Borio 2020; Acharya and Steffen 2020).

In addition, monitoring the performance of the financial system and the banking industry has been an area of ​​interest for policy makers, central banks and full-time researchers. The soundness of the banking sector is very important and its stability is considered the backbone of the national and global economy (Thalassinos et al. 2015). The GFC had a negative impact on the banking sector (Erkens et al. 2012; Nersisyan and Wray 2010). However, several studies agree that the Islamic banking sector was not affected by the GFC and that Islamic banks (IBs) have shown greater resilience than conventional banks (CBs) (Setyawati et al. 2017 ; Baber 2018; Hussien et al. 2019). Daly and Frikha (2016), Trad et al. (2017), Majeed and Zainab (2021), and Haddad and Bouri (2022) showed that IBs, due to their Shariah-based business model, endured the subprime crisis better than their counterparts their CBs.

However, there are some research findings that do not agree with the previous results. Parashar and Venkatesh (2010), Bourkhis and Nabi (2013), Alandejani et al. (2017), and Salman and Nawaz (2018) found that Islamic and conventional banking systems are vulnerable as IBs, too, are affected by the effects of the financial crisis due to their high exposure to real estate and real estate and equity. . Thus, the conflict has not been resolved as to what causes their inactivity in times of crisis.

The recent growth of the Islamic financial system made it one of the strongest sectors of the international financial services industry (Safiullah and Shamsuddin 2018). Despite many of the challenges in 2020 related to COVID-19, the Islamic finance industry posted double-digit growth for the second year in a row, albeit at a slower pace of 14% versus 15% in 2019, up to USD 3.4 trillion. end of 2020 (IFDR 2021). Furthermore, the Islamic banking sector continues to hold the largest share of the entire Shariah-compliant financial industry, (70%) by 2020, with double-digit annual growth of 14%, although slightly down from 15% in 2019. Although industry growth was moderate at the beginning of 2020 and many IBs recorded losses, the trend returned in the second half of 2020 and early a 2021. As a result, Islamic banks emerged unscathed from this epidemic in 2020, with an expected growth of more than USD 3.3 trillion. in goods by 2025 (IFDR 2021).

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The banking industry’s crises are not only caused by the external aspect of governance (supervisory control) but also the internal aspect (board of directors, ownership structure, power) (Richard and Masmoudi 2010; Compaoré et al. 2020). Indeed, the institutional environment and, in particular, bank governance plays a significant role in the occurrence of banking problems. Therefore, after the GFC, banking governance, under its various conditions, is the topic of topics for experts and researchers. It has broadened researchers’ interest in the interaction between corporate governance and financial performance of banks (Pathan and Faff 2013). A number of studies have examined the performance of CBs during the GFC and attributed their failure to weak governance (Kirkpatrick 2009; Erkens et al. 2012; Berger et al. 2016; Marie et al. 2021). However, empirical research on the corporate governance (MCG) of banks, including internal and external factors, is limited and investigates the impact of Shariah-compliant governance practices. in IBs are even more limited (Nomran et al. 2017; Hakimi et al. 2018; Khan and Zahid 2020; Nomran and Haron 2020a; Alam et al. 2021). Many previous studies have focused only on CBs or IBs, and few of them have compared the financial performance of the two groups of banks (Mollah and Zaman 2015). Furthermore, studies using retrospective data to examine the impact of CG practices on banking performance are lacking.

Therefore, given the various limitations of previous studies, this study aims to examine the relationship between MCG and banking performance over 17 macroeconomic conditions worldwide. It differs from previous studies on this topic and contributes to the existing literature in three main ways. First, this paper is one of the few studies in this area and the first, to the best of our knowledge, to examine the impact of MCG on both CBs and IBs during the GFC crisis. and COVID-19. Several studies have examined the impact of the GFC on banking performance; however, the ongoing global crisis caused by COVID-19 in 2020 has not been sufficiently analyzed by researchers in this field. Moreover, our study tries to highlight the impact of these two crises on the performance of Islamic and conventional banks. Second, this study uses a large panel of endogenous and exogenous variables at micro and macro levels to identify some of them that support bank performance. Third, the paper conducts a cross-country comparative analysis of the performance of CBs and IBs using a large scale.

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