Credit Claims For Kansas Environmental And Sustainability Professionals: Legal Considerations And Guidance

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Credit Claims For Kansas Environmental And Sustainability Professionals: Legal Considerations And Guidance

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Author: Muhammad Afrasiab Khan Muhammad Afrasiab Khan Scilit Google Scholar * , Cynthia Changxin Wang Cynthia Changxin Wang Scilit Google Scholar and Chyi Lin Lee Chyi Lin Lee Scilit Google Scholar

Received: March 22, 2021 / Revised: April 26, 2021 / Accepted: April 30, 2021 / Published: May 12, 2021

Bachelor’s Degree In Environmental Sciences And Sustainability

Most countries have developed tools to evaluate green buildings based on social, environmental and economic dimensions. Pakistan followed a similar approach and has developed an assessment tool called Sustainability in Energy and Environmental Development (SEED). However, SEED is built on the standards of assessment tools of developed Western countries, which do not respond to Pakistan’s unique local context, especially from a cultural and governance perspective. This study seeks to fill this research gap by developing a holistic framework of building assessment tools that includes cultural and governance dimensions. Based on an extensive literature review, a hypothetical framework was proposed in this paper, incorporating the unique local contexts of Pakistan and adding cultural and governance dimensions to the social, environmental and economic dimensions of sustainability. This framework was validated by in-depth interviews with various stakeholders in Pakistan. A qualitative analysis of the results of the interviews was carried out, and the final framework was proposed with key indicators, reflecting the five dimensions of sustainability. The validated sustainability framework can be used to improve or develop green building rating tools in Pakistan, and can also inform the development of rating tools in other developing countries.

The construction industry is vital to the wider economy of a country with multiple backward and forward linkages with socio-economic development, sustainable growth and environmentally friendly infrastructure. According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, construction can have a significant negative impact on the environment, consuming 40% of all energy producing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and appearing to be one of the main drivers of global warming. By 2035, buildings will emit 42.4 billion tons of carbon worldwide, an increase of 43% since 2007 [1]. Buildings can therefore play an important role in reducing carbon emissions and reducing the harmful effects of global warming [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. In addition, buildings and construction materials are highly perishable, and therefore continue to affect society and the environment in the long term. In the last decade, the concept of green building has been widely accepted, and emphasis has been placed on the development of various building assessment tools to measure green building criteria. According to Madson and Campbell [8], building assessment tools provide systematic frameworks for evaluating performance criteria so that buildings can be measured and compared to promote the movement towards more sustainable ways of designing, constructing, operating and decommissioning buildings. These tools help policy makers make informed decisions to make society more sustainable [9, 10]. Building assessment tools are one of the most complex assessment methodologies because they involve multidisciplinary aspects, i.e. environmental, economic, social, cultural and value-based elements [11, 12]. According to the British Research Establishment (2008), there are more than 600 assessment tools reported worldwide [13, 14]. For example, BREEAM-UK, LEED-USA, GBI-Malaysia, GREEN STAR-Australia and GREEN GLOBES are famous certification standards used worldwide. In this regard, Pakistan has also developed its own GB assessment tool, called SEED (Sustainability in Energy and Environmental Development) [15]. Therefore, it is important to build a country’s assessment tools to address local environmental needs and sustainability issues.

Various studies highlight the lack of inclusion of local conditions in building assessment tools. Lin and Ling [16] and Ajayi et al. [17] pointed out that most of the existing assessment tools were implemented in developed countries with cold climates, stable economies and different social values. It is not practical to implement their latest sustainable technologies in a developing country like Pakistan with different climatic conditions. Furthermore, there is a lack of a comprehensive approach and comprehensive coverage of sustainability issues. Research studies on building assessment tools show that existing assessment tools mainly cover the environmental aspect with little consideration of social and economic impacts [ 18 , 19 ]. Furthermore, there are too many tools and methods available to assess and evaluate the sustainability of buildings worldwide, without international guidelines. In addition, the assessment methods used by green building assessment tools and life cycle assessment tools are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, green and sustainability rating systems are a greenwashing activity and are often used to manage impressions, in which the system has become a mask of sustainability, deceiving its goals and initial goals [19, 20].

In Pakistan, neither the government nor local authorities have initiated a comprehensive assessment tool to assess sustainable development. The assessment tool developed by SEED is based on western standards and cannot address local environmental needs and sustainability concerns [21]. Pakistan has different climatic factors, meteorological parameters and variables that need to be analyzed and addressed in the green building rating tool, which was not done before. So the certification standard needs to be revised to be specific to Pakistan. Also, there are few buildings with green certification in Pakistan and this is not generally implemented. There is a need to develop legitimate policies and guidelines to promote and implement sustainable development assessments. Therefore, this current study aims to address these challenges and develop a comprehensive green building framework for Pakistan. This is the first study to develop construction assessment tools that take into account the specificity of the local context in Pakistan. This provides a better understanding of assessment tools for policy makers to develop green assessment tools and facilitate the implementation of sustainable development in Pakistan and other developing countries. More specifically, a hypothetical framework is developed based on an extensive literature review. This framework is validated through in-depth interviews with various stakeholders in Pakistan. A qualitative analysis of the results of the interviews will be carried out and a final framework will be proposed with key indicators and significant dimensions of sustainability. After validation, a comprehensive framework suitable for the local context of Pakistan is provided for the Pakistan building assessment tool.

The Dollars And Sense Of Sustainability

This study contributes to the literature by developing a framework for building assessment tools, emphasizing the very humanistic factor of “Life Cycle Thinking” for the first time. It is important because it refers to the human dimension of existence and living, which, according to this study, has a significant and obvious effect on the quality of the objects and urban structures evaluated. In addition, this study also compares the criteria used to prepare building ratings in Pakistan (SEED) and internationally (eg GREENSTAR, LEED, BREEAM, CASBEE, DBNG). Using the example of the regulations adopted in Pakistan, this study tries to take a critical look at this documentation, using the opinions of various experts. Importantly, this study builds an even deeper inspection system, including all social and cultural aspects that have been neglected in existing certification systems. The findings of this study are critical for policy makers. Most importantly, these contribute to the direction of green building development as green building rating tools evolve over time [22, 23] and reduce green cleaning activities (Guo, Zha et al. and Khan, Sepasgozar et al. [20, 24]).

The methodology adopted for this study was (1) literature review and analysis to develop the conceptual framework, and (2) qualitative data collection and analysis to validate the conceptual framework. The methodology for establishing the evaluation criteria for sustainable buildings and constructions is consistent with previous studies [25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31]. An extensive literature review was conducted for this study (Table 1). The literature review fully understands this

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